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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

SEGREGATION AND HOMOGENEITY.
863
There are evidences of segregation, both in a slightly higher tensile strength and in higher phosphorus and sulphur, in the center of the ingot .near the top, but the differences are unimportant,
TABLE XIII-M.
Distribution of Elements in 7-inch Square Blooms Eolled from High-Carbon, Open-Hearth Ingots, 14 inches square.
A. slice -was cut crosswise from the rolled bloom at different places and drillinga taken from the center of this slice, corresponding to the center of the ingot.
Kind of ingot.	Place from which slice was taken.	Composition; percent.				
		Cby, comb.	P.	Mn	. s.	SI.
Low-phosphorus ingot.	Ladle test .................	.984 .941 .900 .991 .982 1.012	.013 .015 .019 .017 .020 .016	.09 .11 .11 .11 .11 .11 Iff .28 .27 .27 .27 .27 .13 .18 .14 .18 .18 .18	.022 .012 .010 .012 .010 .010	.12 .09 .10 .09 .11 .11 ~J2~ .18 .12 .12 .13 .12
	Top of ingot after cutting off 20 per cent.					
	One-fourth way down the ingot . ....					
	One-half way down the ingot ......					
	Three-quarters way down the ingot . . . Bottom of ingot . . ..... ........					
						
Medium-phosphorus . ingot.		1.440 1.205 1.430 1.448 1.400 1.459	.050 .064 .059 .051 .058 .055 :		.016 .015 .015 .018 .014 .012	
	Top of ingot after cutting off 20 per cent.					
	One-fourth way down the ingot ..... One-half way down the ingot ......					
	Three-quarters way down the ingot . . . Bottom of ingot   .............					
Low-phosphorus ingot.	Ladle test ....... ..........	.918 V .926 .965 .948 .056 .948	.024 .021 .022 .021 .025 .021		.010 .018 .018 .020 .021 .021	
	Top of ingot after cutting off 20 per cent.					
	One-fourth way down the ingot ...... One-half way down the ingot ......					
	Three-quarters way down the ingot . . . Bottom of ingot ............ . .					
TABLE XIII-N.     . Composition of the Liquid Interior of an Ingot.
Origin of sample.		Composition; per cent. ,				
		Carhon by combustion	P.	S.	Mn.	Si.
Metal from Ladle test .	interior      ..... .........	.480 .461	.095 .091	.047 .084	0.95 1.18	und. .12
						
and, as the carbon in the steel was .24: per cent., there seems to be good ground for the assumption that nickel prevents the separation of the metalloids. It has not prevented it altogether, however, and it is not probable that any other agent will ever be found competent for this task.